What is a Fistula?
Written by: Sarah O'Brien and Emily Downward | Last Reviewed: January 2018.
- Inflammatory bowel disease – a complicating factor in gynecologic disorders? Medscape. Available at https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/719239_3. Accessed 1/11/18.
- Schwartz DA, Loftus EV Jr, Tremaine WJ, et al. The natural history of fistulizing Crohn's disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:875-880.
- Molendijk I, Peeters KC, Baeten CI, et al. Improving the outcome of fistulising Crohn's disease. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2014;28:505-518.
- Gastrointestinal fistula. MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Available at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001129.htm. Accessed 1/11/18.
- Cleveland Clinic. Anal fistula. Accessed 6/17/15: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_anal_fistula
- Wilkins T, Jarvis K, Patel J. Diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84:1365-1375.
- Nielsen OH, Rogler G, Hahnloser D, Thomsen OØ. Diagnosis and management of fistulizing Crohn's disease. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;6:92-106.
- Understanding EUS (Endoscopic Ultrasound), American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Available at http://www.asge.org/patients/patients.aspx?id=380. Accessed 1/11/18.
- Jones J, Tremaine W. Evaluation of perianal fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease. MedGenMed. 2005;7:16.
- Gecse KB, Bemelman W, Kamm MA, et al; World Gastroenterology Organization, International Organisation for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases IOIBD, European Society of Coloproctology and Robarts Clinical Trials; World Gastroenterology Organization International Organisation for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases IOIBD European Society of Coloproctology and Robarts Clinical Trials. A global consensus on the classification, diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment of perianal fistulising Crohn's disease. Gut. 2014;63:1381-1392.
- Geltzeiler CB, Wieghard N, Tsikitis VL. Recent developments in the surgical management of perianal fistula for Crohn's disease. Ann Gastroenterol. 2014;27:320-330.
- Lichtenstein GR, Hanauer SB, Sandborn WJ; Practice Parameters Committee of American College of Gastroenterology. Management of Crohn's disease in adults. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:465-483.